|Russian Armed Forces|
|1900 Lithuanian Shtetl , by 1914|
Jews were dispossessed and forced to
wander and suffered from starvation
|Jewish teacher, more of a tutor in 19th Century Podalia|
Podalia was a province of Ukraine, USSR. Jews here suffered severely during the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1920, a war after WWI. By WWII, ts Jewish population was annihilated.
From 1941, Romanian Jews were also herded here and some 60,000 died. The Russian army liberated them, helped 55,000 to survive.
|Napoleon emancipated the Jews in 1791|
Jews were not citizens of any country for a terribly long time. Slowly, countries started to allow emancipation, but kept up the anti-Semitism and class distinction in all areas.
USA: 1776: "The first country to emancipate the Jews was the United States. Jewish political inferiority during the colonial period before 1776, however, was not the result of a peculiar legal status. It derived rather from the Jews' belonging to the non-Protestant portion of the population, or in some colonies their nonmembership in one privileged Protestant denomination. Before the period of the American Revolution, Jews living in the colonies were generally ineligible for public office, owing to a Protestant form of oath which operated to exclude Catholics as well. There are instances where Jews entered public life nevertheless, perhaps by disregarding such forms. Jews were not limited in the rights of domicile, economic activity, or the practice of Judaism. Their full enjoyment of civil rights, together with the newness, foreignness, and minuscule numbers of colonial Jews, probably did not encourage them to seek the full political rights which they lacked."
France: 1791-first to give Jews emancipation in Europe.
Great Britain 1858-1890
Russia: 1921 "Before 1905, Russia was a feudal society wherein subjects contracted privileges from a sovereign.Pogroms continued to erupt as civil war engulfed Russia from 1918-1921. When the Bolsheviks emerged from civil war victorious, a new chapter in Russian Jewish history commenced–the subject of which was maintaining Judaism under communism.
There was the Jewish quota. "After 1886, the Jewish quota was applied to education, with the percentage of Jewish students limited to no more than 10% within the Pale, 5% outside the Pale and 3% in the capitals of Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Kiev. The quotas in the capitals, however, were increased slightly in 1908 and 1915."
I note that through Lincoln, the USA emancipated Blacks in 1863. They were freed of slavery. Jews were not enslaved, but were not full citizens, either.
|Russians fighting Germans WWI|
Volhynia was " a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling Poland, Ukraine and Belarus." Belorussia was "formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Russian: Белоруссия), and is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest."
"The concentration of Jews in the Pale, coupled with Tzar Alexander III's "fierce hatred of the Jews", and the rumors that Jews had been involved in the assassination of his father Tzar Alexander II made them easy targets for pogroms and anti-Jewish riots by the majority population." It was a Catholic country, and not friendly as it was to Jews.
|Jewish Lithuanian soldiers celebrating Passover WWI|
Then Austria-Germany took over Congress Poland.
|White Russian fighting Bolsheviks|
Lithuanian Jews were exiled during WWI from 1914 to 1918. Usually, they couldn't return due to the red tape presented to them just to keep them out.
October 1917 "100,000 Jews were killed in the anti‑Bolshevik campaigns conducted by Ukrainians, Poles, and Russians."
First came the Russian Revolution of February or March 1917, depending on the calendar used. Nicholas had to abdicate.
The Pale of Settlement created by Catherine II of Russia existed from 1791 to 1917, the end of WWI. "1791 to 1917,"The Pale of Settlement included all of Belarus, Lithuania and Moldova and much of present-day Ukraine, a part of eastern Latvia and some parts of western Russia, roughly corresponding to the modern western border of Russia. It extended from the eastern pale, or demarcation line, to the western Russian border with the Kingdom of Prussia (later the German Empire) and with Austria-Hungary. Furthermore, it comprised about 20% of the territory of European Russia and largely corresponded to historical lands of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Cossack Hetmanate, and the Ottoman Empire (with Crimean Khanate).
In other words, it was made up of 25 provinces of Czarist Russia 's hold on Poland, Lithuania, White Russia (Belorussia or Belarus) , Ukraine, Bessarabia (Romanian-Moldavian-Ukrainian Republics.) and Crimea. This is where Jews were allowed to live. Jews could not live outside this border unless they were special subjects given permission such as people who graduated from a high school, an important businessman, or a skilled well-known artist. Since only 10% were allowed to become educated, this eliminated most Jews. No wonder my Bubba was illiterate!
|Map of Poland|
The Pale of Settlement was abolished after the February Revolution in 1917, but like all other
Resource: Resource: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/russia.html
Malice, Murder, and Manipulation by Grant Arthur Gochin